Tuesday, August 4, 2020
Digital Media as a Means For Social Change COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog There are always events going on at SIPA each week featuring interesting speakers from all different fields. A recent example focused on professionals representing digital media channels you are likely familiar with. The following article was contributed by SIPA student Timothy Shenk. _____________________ Two leaders in the evolving digital media landscape spoke with SIPA students about promoting social and political advocacy through online videos and other channels. Steve Grove, head of news and politics at YouTube, and Noopur Agarwal, director of public affairs at MTV, discussed their organizationsâ work in separate presentations. Grove described the ways news and political videos have proliferated on YouTube in recent years, as everyone from federal bureaucrats to amateur pundits use the medium to speak directly to millions of viewers. In an innovative approach to journalism, YouTube has conducted virtual town hall meetings by soliciting questions from the public and submitting them directly to leaders such as President Obama, Grove said. However, unlike the traditional news media, YouTube is unable to vet its content for accuracy or decency before it is posted online. Pornographic, copyrighted or hateful material must be flagged by users or identified by a computer algorithm, then reviewed by a YouTube employee, before it can be taken down, Grove said. Agarwal described MTVs approach to social advocacy. Beginning with the Live Aid concerts in 1985, MTV has used its pop culture brand to advocate for issues of concern to young people. In 2004, MTV launched a campaign on its college network, mtvU, to press for an end to the genocide in Darfur. MTV carries out its campaigns in partnership with public policy organizations. For example, MTV promotes testing for sexually transmitted diseases in partnership with a public health research and advocacy organization, the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. MTV also partners with the social networking service Foursquare to encourage people to post an online badge showing that they have been tested. Surprisingly, it has become one of the most popular Foursquare badges, Agarwal said. Most recently, MTV launched âA Thin Line,â a campaign to raise awareness about digital abuse. MTV runs advocacy videos on its main cable channel and promotes a website where young people share real stories of online bullying. âThis is the first generation thats grown up this way and has relationships play out online,âAgarwal said. âIts part of being a young person from now on.â
Monday, June 22, 2020
The three estates work in theory when each estate acts well. Some of the characters introduced in the General Prologue of Canterbury Tales are meant at first to show the character as the ideal person in their profession. But, when more description is given by the narrator, they reveal that Chaucer is simply satirizing them based on the stereotypes he perceived in the people of his time. By making fun of these stereotypes, he reveals the subtle complexity of the human state. This satire is meant to contrast how these people may look to the general public, to how they actually behave and act. It lets the reader decide if the character is really ideal or deeply flawed. It lets the reader choose to view these characters as simply ideals, or as human beings like themselves. Characters such as the Knight, the Squire, and the Monk all disappoint their original estate with their actions. The transgressions of these characters in relation to their estates depicts a world rife with inner conflict, thus making them in-efficient. These descriptions show that when a character acts outside of their estate, they arent ideal and they do not help the society as a whole. One of Chaucers more ideal pilgrims is the knight. The knight displays many traits that seem too good to be true and his character at times is not believable. He has fought many battles to the death, winning them all for his kingdom. He holds his values of chivalry, honor, and respect dear to him and that makes him one of the more likeable characters of the group. He acts almost as if he were a robot: seemingly with no emotion and with a penchant for justice. The narrator begins his introduction with, A Knyght ther was, and that a worthy man. That fro the tyme that he first bigan. To ryden out, he loved chivalrye, trouthe and honour, fredom and curteisye. (Pg 4) This description shows him to be a perfect knight, one that values the code of chivalry like all good knights should. This description doesnt hold to end, when the narrator gives additional information on the knight by saying, Though he were worthy, he was wys. And of his port as meeke as is a mayde. (Pg 5) These two descriptions could not be farther from each other. In the first, he is described as a worthy, honorable, and chivalrous man. But in the second, his port is said to be as meeke as a maid, which is very far from what a knight is supposed to be. This shows that the descriptions that Chaucer gave earlier may have been comedic exaggerations. Being meek is not necessarily a bad thing, it is a human convention after all. The knight is satirized in the fact that he is held to unrealistic human standards. Society believes that someone so noble should not have these flaws so it draws every extreme i deal description of him into question. The Knights son, the squire, also has these conflicting descriptions that put his character into question. At first, he is said to be, And wonderly deliver, and greet of strengthe. And he had been somtyme in chivachye. (Pp 6) This shows that he has some of the physical potential of a knight. This would be great if he didnt have all types of other less knightley traits, such as his femininity. He is shown to be a lusty bachelor type of man, who is ultimately concerned about his appearance above all. He wears stylish, but very daring garments that were looked down on by the church. He also always made sure his hair was in perfect condition, With lokkes crulle as they were leyd in presse. (Pp 6) This seems to show that he intentionally curls his hair, just as a woman would do. Another less than desirable trait would be his desire for cleanliness, something the knight did not share with him. The contrast between the descriptions of the two goes to show this fact. The narrators description of the knight is much different than of the squire, saying He was a true, perfect, noble knight. But to tell you of his attire, his horses were good, but his clothes not bright. Of rough clothes he wore a tunic all rustained by his coat of mail, for hed no sooner returned from his voyage, than he set out to make his pilgrimage. (Pp 7) This is contrasted quite easily with the narrators description of the squire, He was as fresh is the month of May. (Pp 6) He is described as being fresh as May, showing how much pride he took in cleanliness, also a quality of a woman of his time. He also places more importance in fighting for a ladys honor than fighting for his ideals like his father. All these differing qualities in the character of the knight and the squire drives home the point that even though the squire might someday have the physical qualities of a knight, he would not be an ideal kn ight. He cares too much about womanly things such as appearance while the knight seems to show no such care for it. His vain attitude and selfish outlook should disqualify him from being the ideal knight. His actions show him to be more of a second estate woman than a knight so he is not a helpful character to society. The monk is not the ordinary religious man devout to his ideals and morals. Instead he is a worldly man who only cares for his personal enjoyment. He has a very cocky, sarcastic attitude not usually found in men of the church, which is the biggest sign that he isnt the ideal religious man. Monks usually hole themselves into their place of worship, they dont go out into the world adventuring and hunting like the Monk. This sets the Monk apart from every other religious authority. The narrator states this when he says, He gave not for that text a plucked hen, that said hunters should not be holy men, nor that a monk when he neglects his vows, is like a fish out of water. (Pp 11) This shows that the Monk took his pleasure from more modern things, and didnt care for the old ways of the church. The narrator starts his description by calling him a manly man. (Pp 11) This shows that he puts his hunting and other manly activities over being a man of the church. He differs greatly from other church officials as he seems to have no care for his duties as a monk. He takes up hunting, a leisure activity of the second estate, over his first estate duties. The health of the country depends upon each estate performing and behaving well. The descriptions of these characters show that some of them do not wish to act within their estate, such as the squire and the monk. However, it seems as if these superficial estates do more harm than good. While it is believed that the squire should behave in a noble and honorable way at all times, like most knights, he breaks these conventions by being vain. This therefore hurts the society as a whole to have someone in the second estate acting like they are in the third estate. The Monk does the exact same thing, not acting as those in his estate. Chaucer seems to be bringing these estates into question; he is evaluating the state of society through the use of literary satire. The people in the first estate are suppose to project good, religious values onto the second and third estate. When a monk is acting as someone in the second estate would, it hurts the society as a whole. They should be setting a good example for the rest, but how is that possible if their estates call upon supernatural ideals unsuitable for a mere human being. Stifling human creativity and vast emotion into a preset list of values is not the winning formula. Just like a dog in a dress isnt a princess, a man acting like a knight is not a knight at all.
Saturday, May 23, 2020
In fact, lack of or poor cooperation and coordination among security agencies is one of the primary reasons terrorism continues to thrive. This aspect of the plan lays down the chain of command to be observed in the event of a terrorist act. The absence of a chain of command creates an atmosphere of confusion that makes it possible for the terrorists to escape without being apprehended. The fourth and final area is the procedure of notifying members of the public of the act of terrorism[Jia08]. The essence of this component is to minimize the number of casualties. This aspect should be well executed so that it does not lead to more casualties. For instance, it would be inappropriate to sound police sirens around the scene of the incident. Doing so could confuse some people who would end up running toward, instead of away from, the scene. Instead, authorities should broadcast breaking news on television and radio stations. In addition, in this day and age, the social media would come in handy. Resiliency Planning Terroristattacks disrupt day-to-day activity at the target site. We will write a custom essay sample on Terrorism Emergency Plan for Metropolis or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now The purpose of resiliency planning is to help Metropolis bounce back to normalcy as soon as possible in the aftermath of a terrorist attack[Bow14]. Of the four areas of resiliency planning discussed here, the first two are short-term or immediate in nature. The third and the fourth are longer-term. The first critical aspect of resiliency planning is victim support[Hen05]. Terrorist attacks often result in the deaths of many people while seriously injuring many more. The essence of this aspect of the resiliency plan is to get those who are wounded to hospitals as soon as possible and link them with their loved ones. Consequently, as soon as the scene is secured, the bodies of the deceased need to be retrieved at taken to morgues and their relatives helped to locate them. The second area is site restoration[Slo02]. Besides destroying lives, terrorists destroy property. The city authorities should help in the speedy restoration of the site. Where damage to the property is minimal, it may be possible to restore a property to its original status and use, with renovations. Where the damage is severe, the site may be changed into a different use such as a memorial park. Throughout the process, the city authorities should work closely with the owners or tenants of the property. The third area of concern for the resiliency plan is the prevention of similar terrorist attacks in the future[Slo02].
Monday, May 18, 2020
MSc Marketing Strategy IB9X30 Research Methods for Marketing Strategy Individual assignment Option B- Critical Analysis of: Martin, D.M, Schouten, J.W, McAlexander, J.H. 2006. Claiming The Throttle: Multiple femininities in a hyper-masculine subculture, Consumption, Markets Culture, 9:3, 171-205. Title: Grasping the nature of Feminist Ethnography. Submission date: December 4,2010 Warwick ID: 1058761 Word count: 1960 Words Ã¢â¬Å"All the work contained in this work is my own, original unaided effort. I have read and understand, and the work conforms to, the UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s guidelines on plagiarismÃ¢â¬ 1 ABSTRACT Feminist research holds a lot of value in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society where equality between female andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Feminist research is an anti positivist approach, thus it discards the valueÃ¢â¬ free nature of research (Haig, 1997;Punch, 2000 as cited in Sarantakos, Sept 2004:54). Feminist researchers generally employ a qualitative research method design in order to meet the objectives of their study. Reinharz (1992) sees feminist research as more of a Ã¢â¬Å"perspectiveÃ¢â¬ rather than a method (Wilkinson and Morton, 2007). Typically societyÃ¢â¬â¢s viewpoint is generally a male dominated one, thus there is the need for equality between men and female perspectives. Feminist research aspires to achieve this by gathering data and pointing out different perspectives relevant to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world. This article is an excellent example of a feminist research as it incorporates all the principles of a feminis t research paper. It includes an emotional perspective involving all experiences and events witnessed, thus gaining an inside experience. It aims to create a social change and bring frontward the unheard voices of women by representing their standpoint. Gender is given central importance in the domain of social inquiry; research is carried out surrounding that aspect (Sarantakos, Sept 2004:56). The article has employed a variety of qualitative methods and frameworks and thus described howShow MoreRelatedResearch Paper on Black Feminists1307 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesResearch Paper: Black Feminist Movement Different movements went on through segregation days where blacks and whites were separated. Some movements led to another. Such movements became very popular, and were moving fast towards freedom. However, some movements were not taking as serious as others. Such movements like the Black Feminist Movement, was not looked at as a major aspect to their black nation. Many had fail to realize that even women have strong voices to be heard in social, politicalRead MoreI Propose We Do Something About The Underlying Problems1246 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagestwisted. Many women who are in fact feminists are clouded on what an actual feminism is. Many scholars and writers have written on certain issues on Ã¢â¬Å"What is wrong with feminismÃ¢â¬ or even how bad one side of other feminist are. Some feminist/scholars have said that the racism, sexism, and gender hate discrimination is hugely impacted the way feminists view each other. Although some of these accusations are true, most of them stereo type a huge number of feminists. I propose that feminism will improveRead MorePatriarchy And The Challenge Of Feminism Essay894 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesJudith Bennett is a Medievalist Historian who has focused much of her research on English/European women and feminist history (1-2). In her book History Matters: Patriarchy and the Challenge of Feminism, she argues that feminism and history, specifically womenÃ¢â¬â¢s, need to be more closely linked. This link, she argues, comes from taking theories and methods from one field and applying them to the other in order to create a more indepth analysis of both. Bennett states in her introduction that thisRead MoreFeminist Theory : A Feminist Life1591 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWriter, feminist theorist, and professor Sara Ahmed wrote Living a Feminist Life alongside her blog feministkilljoys.com. She started writing it before and completed it after her resignation in 2016 from her post as director of the Centre for Feminist Research at Golds miths at the University of London after a lengthy struggle to hold the school accountable for incidents of sexual harassment on campus (Ahmed, n.d.). Her resignation, and location both in and out of the academy informed a lot of theRead MoreBolatito A. Lanre-Abbas, (2013) Feminism In The Postmodernist1173 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagessociety, that anyone who strives for this, or womenÃ¢â¬â¢s emancipation from oppression is a feminist. Feminism is diverse experiences of diverse women, all striving to better society. Neither feminist nor postmodernist want to be labeled the other, this stems from the fact that there are multiple womenÃ¢â¬â¢s movements and it is unclear which label would be attached. PostmodernistÃ¢â¬â¢s just donÃ¢â¬â¢t agree on every point that feminists might, again they donÃ¢â¬â¢t like the universal aspect, which feminism usually tries toRead MoreThe Female Body And Land Art1574 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmoving to the USA. This displacement from her homeland and cult ure played a large part in informing her work. Mendieta repeatedly proclaimed, Ã¢â¬ËI am between two culturesÃ¢â¬â¢ (Mendieta in Barreras del Rio) . In her search for identity Mendieta supported feminist ideas which in turn promoted feminine discourse. I believe that Mendieta s intention was to empower women through a shared experience and the heritage of an ancient matriarchal culture. The Ã¢â¬ËSilueta SeriesÃ¢â¬â¢ which incorporated earth works, naturalRead MoreApplying The Woman Question : The Case Of An African Nigerian Woman1152 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAPPLYING Ã¢â¬Å"THE WOMAN QUESTIONÃ¢â¬ TO ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS: THE CASE OF AN AFRICAN NIGERIAN WOMAN (Short Presentation and Summary) Ã ¬Ã ¬Ã ¬Ã ¬BY: UCHENNA IJOMA This brief paper examines my application of the feminist research methodology to my future research. My research topic is centred on what role law has to play to balance the interest between the environmental hazards affecting the Climate and satisfying the basic energy need of poor women living in the rural area of Nigeria who depends solelyRead MoreConflicting Paradigms On Gender And Sexuality1453 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe feminism theory, along with culture studies and relations. This review shows that conflicting paradigms, come together in this literature and that very few studies are both strong and rich, these paradigms including misogyny or sexual agency . Research in the future should approach this hardship as well as expand on changes over time in how gender relationships and sexual relationships have been chooses in this specific music category. The review is primarily focused around sexuality in relationRead MoreDoes Feminism Create Equality?1037 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesto men. Nevertheless, it is also surrounded by controversy and has become a political game. As an illustration, feminism in some countries becomes part of political rally and many politicians label and identify themselves as feminist to enhance their public images among feminist voters. In addition, politicians can play on the emotion of women by telling that they can get women more rights if they get elected. Perhaps the most acknowledged cause of feminismÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to create equality is the diversityRead MoreFeminism : A Feminist Perspective1168 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageseye-opening articles, groundbreaking books, and activism has influenced my intellectual journal through feminist theory. Feminism is a contentious topic with matters that pertain to contemporary feminism, including the following: reproductive rights; equal access to education and employment; marriage equality; violence against women; and the sex trade. While these are only a few of the issues faced by feminists, it is evident that feminism has great value in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. My journey with feminism began
Monday, May 11, 2020
Nineteenth century European society was characterized by organized religion and a rigid class system. Oscar WildeÃ¢â¬â¢s The Importance of Being Earnest and Jane AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s Pride and Prejudice use satire to reveal faults in these elements of society. Many of WildeÃ¢â¬â¢s criticisms of society are provoked by his closeted homosexuality. He portrays religion as a restricting, meaningless convention and depicts the aristocratic class as a hypocritical and unempathetic lot. Austen similarly finds faults in these areas of society, but her opinions stem from her experiences as a nineteenth century woman. Her criticisms of religion are directed toward the clergyman and she declares the aristocratic class to be both egotistical and image obsessed. Both authors satirize the same systems and traditions of society to raise awareness of faults within each area, but their critiques of each feature is different. Additionally, Wilde uses various literary techniques as methods of satirizat ion while Austen only uses her characters as sources of criticism. Wilde uses burlesque and wordplay to expose the limiting and inconsequential nature of religion, while AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s Mr. Collins demonstrates the corruption of the clergy. Before Algernon and Jack devise their plan to use christenings to gain a Christian second name, there is no indication that they are religious. They are only interested in religion because they realize they stand to gain secular benefits from it. In accordance with the plan, Jack
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Writing Benchmark There are many ways an author of a book, novel, poem, or any literary work tries to connect to his or her audience. An author experiments with different literary techniques and ideas which he or she best believes is sufficient in getting his or her perspective across to the audience. One famous work called A Modest Proposal by Jonathan Swift is often considered the ideal example of a literary style called satire. In this work, Swift delivers his perspective and thoughts on the Irish in the 1700s that were living in poverty due to a nationwide famine in Ireland. Jonathan SwiftÃ¢â¬â¢s main purpose was to mock the cruel and disappointing treatment of the impoverished Irish in the 1700s and he uses elements of satire to convince readers of his perspective. Jonathan Swift relies heavily on verbal irony to express his perspective on the treatment of the Irish by the ruling English. Using verbal irony, Swift wrote the opposite of what he actually meant. Throughout the st ory, he writes in the perspective of an Englishmen which opposed the Irish when in reality, he was writing in favor of the Irish and their poor conditions. For example, Swift stated that a positive effect from having his cannibalistic Ã¢â¬Å"solutionÃ¢â¬ would be that the number of papists, or Catholics would decrease. Swift wrote in the perspective of the English, who were Protestant and hated the Irish Catholics and treated them harshly for being so. This revealed his true perspective as he mocks theShow MoreRelatedJohn Swift1632 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesChristian 1213.1915 04/12/13 Jonathan SwiftÃ¢â¬â¢s Writing Style According to critics, Jonathan SwiftÃ¢â¬â¢s writing style has three characteristics, which are mockery, details and panegyric writing. Harold Weber explains, Ã¢â¬Å"SwiftÃ¢â¬â¢s verse technique and the way in which he achieves his poetic effects, the disagreement over the value of SwiftÃ¢â¬â¢s varied satiric masksÃ¢â¬ (448). Weber defines SwiftÃ¢â¬â¢s use of mockery as a satiric mask recurring in as self-amusement in his literary works. Thomas Gilmore speaks ofRead MoreSatire In Gullivers Travels1455 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagestheir works. One of these elements that writers use is called Ã¢â¬Å"satire.Ã¢â¬ This element is used to make fun of something that the author disapproves of in a comical but hidden way. Widely considered as one of the greatest satirists to ever live, Jonathan Swift used satire in his works to express his disgust in society and the British Monarchy during the 18th century. One of the greatest satires ever written by Swift was GulliverÃ¢â¬â¢s Trav els. In GulliverÃ¢â¬â¢s Travels, satire is evident through GulliverÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreLiterary Analysis : Jonathan Swift1425 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMary Ellen Griffith Freshman Comp. II Oct. 27, 2015 Literary analysis The author I decided to write about is Jonathan Swift for he had a keen sense for effective sarcasm. As Jonathan Swift said Ã¢â¬Å"The proper words in the proper places are the true definition of style.Ã¢â¬ Though he was known in different ways, he was mostly popularized through his gift in writing, particularly his satire, or his use of humor and irony, essays. Through out swift life, there has been plenty of events where I believeRead MoreEffective Persuasive Techniques Used By John Donne s `` The Flea ``1480 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEffective Argument Techniques Effective argumentative and persuasive techniques are a course of reasoning aimed at validating or falsifying the truth in an argument. With an in-depth analysis of literature, the perplex intentions of a writer that use such techniques can be revealed. Methods such as logical fallacies, rhetorical devices, and satirical devices are three approaches that construct a piece of work on a more compelling level. Behind these elements of writing, there are a multitude of purposesRead MoreSatire of a Modest Proposal Essay1331 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesis a beautiful technique exercised to convey a message or call a certain group of people to action. This rhetorical skill is artfully used by Jonathan Swift in his pamphlet Ã¢â¬Å"A Modest Proposal.Ã¢â¬ The main argument for this mordantly ironic essay is to capture the attention of a disconnected and indifferent audience. Swift makes his point by stringing together a dreadfully twisted set of morally untenable positions in order to cast blame and aspersions on his intended audience. Jonathan SwiftÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"A ModestRead MoreHoratian and Juvenalian Satire1884 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesHoratian and Juvenalian Satire Satire has many definitions, but according to Merriam Webster satire can be defined as Ã¢â¬Å"A literary work holding up human vices and follies to ridicule or scornÃ¢â¬ (Webster). This definition is likely used by many authors who exercise the application of satire. Satire has been in literature since ancient times; it is derived from the Latin satura, meaning dish of mixed fruits, (Weisgerber). Many satirists have shared a common aim: to expose foolishness in all its guisesRead MoreSatire in Tartuffe and Modest Proposal1560 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesand behaviors. Various techniques are used in order to deliver a satirist effect, those of which house wit as their main weapon. These methods harmonize the mastering of coexisting trivial and serious matters as one sarcasm, showing praise but meaning the contrary to demonstrate irony, and asking questions rhetorically. Additionally, the author might understate an issue in order to maneuver the audience towards the true importance of th e topic, adversely; exaggeration is used to lower the impact ofRead MoreJonathan Swift s A Modest Proposal1809 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesJonathan SwiftÃ¢â¬â¢s A Modest Proposal is a satirical essay that sardonically uses an outrageous solution to the massive poverty in Ireland. He proposes this lengthy idea of eating children as the solution to the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s problems. His serious yet hyperbolic and satirical style allows Swift an approach to get people engaged in the difficulties the Irish had to do to survive their everyday life. This essay explores SwiftÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to use literary devices and how these techniques advance his idea aboutRead MoreSatire Essay1434 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSatire is a great tool used by many writers and actors since ancient times. The earliest example that we know about is a script from 2nd millennium BC in Ancient Egypt (Definition: Satire) and since then has evolved into a great part of our society. Satire is used to point out the faults of human vice in order for change and reform in either of two ways. There is a very bitter Juvenalian or a mild and light Horatian. In order to fully understand these forms of satire, method, purpose, and applicationsRead MoreMedia Project1616 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesArt as Technique 1. Defamiliarization is stripping objects or subjects from their individual or Ã¢â¬Å"familiarÃ¢â¬ characteristics and giving them unusual or Ã¢â¬Å"unfamiliarÃ¢â¬ traits to allow the reader to see it in a whole new perspective. An example of this is in Tolstoys defamiliarization of spanking, explaining the act as Ã¢â¬Å"to strip people who have broken the law, to hurl them to the floor, and to rap on their bottoms with switches.Ã¢â¬ The crude description removes the disciplinary context it had and
string(122) " children on the weekends to make up for the time they have been working and they have missed expending with their child\." Discuss concepts of attachment in human development. What implications does this have for a society in which the majority of Mothers are employed outside the home? Attachment is the bond and affection created by two people. It is a need developed in human beings since we are born to feel secure and safe. We will write a custom essay sample on Discuss Concepts of Attachment in Human Development or any similar topic only for you Order Now According to Bowlby, this theory is an emotion connection human beings generate when they are born where they get emotionally associated to caregivers, normally the mother, creating to an emotional reaction when this connection of attachment is in danger or gone. (Worden 1991) Lasing psychological connectedness between human beingsÃ¢â¬ The caregiver is giving to the baby an emotional security needed for the development of the baby. (Hospice Slo) This attachment between baby and caregiver can be partially replaced when the baby grows and gets involved for longer periods of time during the day with other human beings but it is very important to keep the infant close to the main caregiver to improve childÃ¢â¬â¢s chance of survival. Birth involves changes and adjustments, pain and joy and new beginnings (Kubler-Ross 1981) Key Features of BolbyÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of Attachment. Monotropy: Babies are strongly attached to the caregiver who is normally the mother, and this attachment take s its form on the first year of life. -If attachment with the mother has not taken place by age 2, it will be almost impossible to adjust it, even after 6 months of the babyÃ¢â¬â¢s life; it would make it very difficult. -Secure attachment to the caregiver is very important for a future emotional, social and intellectual development. -Once attachment is created, if it gets interrupted it can led to massive consequences on social, intellectual and emotional development. Reciprocal: The attachment is form in a two way. -Critical period. Between 6 months and 2 years is most important period where the baby and the caregiver should be close to creating a bond. -Maternal deprivation. As Bowlby describes it, it is the serious developmental impairment caused by being separated from the mother in infancy. (Kubler-Ross 1981) Having in mind the theories of attachment according to Bowlby and the repercussions if interrupted, we can state the existence of a strong independence between mother an d baby. We can understand that this bond between baby/toddler and caregiver cannot be eternally followed. In general, the mothers, after a giving birth, have created the attachment and get connected to the baby but at some point, most of them will have to go back to a productive life and join their job again if they had one, as most women will be obliged to contribute to the necessities of the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s finances so she will be forced to assign the task of caring for the baby after just a few months of the babyÃ¢â¬â¢s life. That does not mean the attachment will be broken but the baby will spend some time during the day looked after by a second party. The baby will be responsive and create an emotional connection between the new caregiver once the caregiver is responsive and familiar. (Berger 1983) This is not a journey by choice most of the time. It would be greater if the mother could stay close to home and focus directly on what is right to be sure that her path is connected with the child. (Kornfield 1988) The task of looking after the baby while the mother is working could be given to a second party in the family, for example grandparents if they are able to take care of the child or any other relative. A nanny or infant day care are some other choices to achieve the right care for the baby. Once the task of carer has been assigned, the baby will be separated of his mother for most of the day and new attachments will be formed, but the main one will be the bond between mother and child. This change could be lived by the child in a very distressed way as new people or strange people will be caring for him and it could be upsetting for the mother if the bonds are too tight. As upsetting as it could be for the child this change in life and environment could be a crucial move for the child to start learning different things, interact with other people or children and start new discoveries. Mothers always think is safer to leave children with family relates, but depending the age, childcare could be a perfect option for a child. Once the infant is around 2 years old, being exposed to other children will help to develop and the start of relationships with other people or kids, so from being the main character in his house, children will learn to socialize with other children or people with the purpose of social growing. The father, who in a normal situation would have developed a bond with the child but in a smaller scale than the mother, he will make closer emotional connection with his child as he will have more responsibility sharing the tasks and caring for the baby. Cowan 1993) Having mentioned what attachment means for caregiver/mother and baby and the changes in modern life, we can question how this affects the working mother, the family and the child. Long-term study by University College London has studied the case and influence in young children when their mothers have to go to work and develop a professional career. The conclusions have been revealing that the kids exposed to this situation are not harmed emotionally or socially by being left with family, relatives or day care option and they would had the same behaviour so there were no changes with the absence of the caregiver. Some researches pointed out that there are no big difference between the time a working mother or a housewife dedicate to their children, as the working mothers compensate the attention to their children on the weekends to make up for the time they have been working and they have missed expending with their child. You read "Discuss Concepts of Attachment in Human Development" in category "Essay examples" PsychologistsÃ¢â¬â¢ point that it is more important the quality not the quantity of time spent with her children. The fact that the mother can develop a professional career can help to lift her self-esteem and that will be transmitted to the children instead the mother having to resign for the sake of her children which it can lead to a frustration and depression and these could also be transmitted to the children and affect their day life and their behaviour. This case study leaded to some other repercussions regarding children gender and different situations in the household which we can blame to some dysfunctional parental issues. (Meikle) The UCL Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatics study states that children which are left in caring centres or looked after by relatives have poorer dietary habits, had more tendencies to drink sweet drinks between meals and they were an average of two hours a day in front of the TV or the computer than the children who were full time looked after by the mother. These statements link to appreciate that working parents have less time to provide their children with a balance diet and chances for physical activity leading children to a higher risk of obesity. (Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health) Another study by the University College London states that there were no detrimental effects for children if the mother goes back to work but that childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s health and emotional wellbeing could sustain if the detachment happens in very early life of the child. Dr Anne McMunn agrees with some of the statements above and she pointed that children looked after by the mother full time had the most behaviour difficulties. (Ross, T, Barker, C) She also stated that working mothers are more likely to have higher educational qualifications which would allow them to live in a higher class in society, with bigger incomes and have lower possibilities of getting depressed than non working mothers. These factors explain the levels of behavioural difficulties for males of non working mothers, but it would not be the same case for girls. (McMunn, A) The American Psychological Association, in Washington, D. C has studied the case of families with low incomes and the benefits in children if mothers go to work. Children in a low class family will benefit more if the mother works as there will be a financial stability in the household and the mother will become a model role to follow for the family. Their case study was based in mothers returning to work at early age of the children (preferably almost straight away after giving birth) giving a result of benefits for the children and the family. On the other side, mothers who go back to work after her children turns 3 years old, these children will tend to have achievement problems in school, behavioural problems and conduct problems, believing that it was much better an earlier start for the mother to join work. Doing more research on middle and upper class families, children who were left in daycares were slightly more likely to see decreases in achievement, suggesting that families with no financial problems may not see beneficial for the mother to go back to work while children are very young. These studies took place in USA and they agree there is no support for new mothers in terms of flexi time and maternity leave policies and that having more help to arrange more time with their babies could only have positive effects for children. Thompson, R. L) United Nations ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Fund reported that children in UK are exposed to risk as mothers join work too soon having to leave babies in day care, nannies and they mentioned it reduces the emotional benefit and behaviourally if the mothers were able to look after the kids at home as maternity leave are not fairly paid and UK and it does not provide enough money for early childhood services. Unicef reckons by their research that the lack of contact between parents and children could lead the children to depression and withdrawn, performing poorly in school and developing behavioural problems stating that the younger the baby is, the greater the risk recommending that babies should be with the parents at least till they are 12 months old. (Beckford, M) We have had the chance to compare different studies and points of view in terms of the impact and implications for employed mothers who have to be away from their homes to bring an income to the house and leave their children in care of second parties. Some of this studies vary in opinions and we have pointed the main repercussions, but most of them agree there is no major repercussions in being absent from the household while they are working. In general, once the attachment mother-child has been established, the mother and the children will always be connected and it could be beneficial for the child for his on future development. In the old times, mothers were staying at home looking after the children and taking care of the house, but this society we are living now has made us change this tradition and our ways of behaving relating parental attachment have changed as we need the income to survive, but the success of our children in the future will not be measured by the material things received but the intensity and quality in the affecting relations parents have been able to provide since they are children. We need to bear in mind that most of the cases where the studies do not find any unbeneficial consequences are based in traditional families, mother and father together with no dysfunctional problems, which if these situation changes dramatically, and the consequences would be completely different. We also presume that the nanny, relative or care giver assigned for this task has experience or it is a high level institution where the children are not going to be in lack of caring of attention. References: Ã¢â¬â Beckford, M (2008) Unicef: English children at risk because mothers go back to work too soon [Online]. Available: http://www. telegraph. o. uk/news/uknews/3701376/Unicef-English-children-at-risk-because-mothers-go-back-to-work-too-soon. html [Accessed 15 November 2011] -Berger, K. S, 6th ed. , (1983) The developing person through the life span. New York: Worth Publishers. Ã¢â¬â Cowan, P. A (1993) Family, self, and society: toward a new agenda for family research. New Jers ey: Lawerence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Ã¢â¬â Hospice SLO. WordenÃ¢â¬â¢s 4 Tasks of Grief [Online]. Available: http://www. hospiceslo. org/helpful-info/82-wordens-4-tasks-of-grief. html [Accessed 15 November 2011] -Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health (2009) Children of working mothers have unhealthier lifestyles. Online]. Available: http://www. ucl. ac. uk/news/news-articles/0909/09092903 [Accessed 17 November 2011] -Kornfield, J (1988) A path with heart. New York: Rider. -Kubler-Ross,E (1981) Living with Death and Dying. How to communicate with the terminally ill. New York:Touchstone. -McMunn, A (2011) Working mothers and the effects on children. [Online]. Available: http://www. esrc. ac. uk/news-and-events/press-releases/16143/working-mothers-and-the-effects-on-children. aspx [Accessed 17 November 2011] Ã¢â¬â Meikle, J (2011) Working mothers do no harm to their young children, research finds. [Online]. Available: http://www. guardian. co. k/lifeandstyle/2011/jul/22 /working-mothers-no-harm-children [Accessed 15 November 2011] -Ross, T, Barker, C (2011) New mothers told itÃ¢â¬â¢s better to go back to work. [Online]. Available: http://www. telegraph. co. uk/family/8652948/New-mothers-told-its-better-to-go-back-to-work. html [Accessed 17 November 2011] Ã¢â¬â Thompson, R. L (2010) The Kids Are All Right: Few Negative Associations With MomsÃ¢â¬â¢ Return to Work Soon After Having Children. [Online]. Available: http://www. apa. org/news/press/releases/2010/10/working-mothers. aspx [Accessed 17 November 2011] -Worden, J. W, 4thÃ ed. , (2010)Ã Grief Counselling and Grief Therapy: A Handbook How to cite Discuss Concepts of Attachment in Human Development, Essay examples